I would like to change my mind, and the way to do that was to ask you to show where my beliefs are wrong, to debunk my beliefs. For years I believed sex is determined by all sex characteristics including secondary sex characteristics such as facial hair, breasts, etc and that sex is bimodal, a spectrum. These tweets posted by a scientist explain why they and other scientists believe sex is a bimodal distribution; https://twitter.com/ScienceVet2/status/1035246030500061184
And this article explains why sex is bimodal; https://whyevolutionistrue.com/2018/10/28/sex-in-humans-may-not-be-binary-but-its-surely-bimodal/
In order to change my mind, I need answers to the following questions.
Question number 1 , this is more so a question about other species, not humans, and why I'm asking GC is because whenever I ask about other species on science subreddits, I get answers from TRAs. So if any GC here is knowledgeable on the topic of biology and whether or not sex is binary in other sexually reproducing species I would appreciate if you answered this question, why is sex a binary and not bimodal in all sexually reproducing species?
In other sexually reproducing species, hermaphrodites that produce both sperm and egg show that the experience of sex is not binary, the options for an individual organisms sex are not limited to 'male' or 'female', and can be something else such as a hermaphrodite that is not male or female, and produces both egg and sperm. A binary system does not mean "two"; or "both" it means a system in which there are two options, an either/or situation.
Hermaphrodites introduce a scenario where the options are "either/or" and "both/neither", that means by definition sex is no longer a binary system in other species because there is a third option of expressing sex through producing both sperm and egg ... Why don't hermaphrodites show that in other sexually reproducing species sex is not a binary?
Question number 2 , Why isn't someone less of a male or less of a female if they can not produce sperm or egg, have removed all genitalia in surgery, have big or small breasts, have less or more body and facial hair, etc?
When we say sex is bimodal and a spectrum, we mean a female that can not produce eggs, has removed all female genitalia in surgery, has small breasts, has more body and facial hair etc. is less of a female than a female that can produce eggs, has all female genitalia, has big breasts, has less body and facial hair etc.
Same goes for males, we mean a male that can not produce sperm, has removed all male genitalia in surgery, has big breasts, has less body and facial hair etc. is less of a male than a male that can produce sperm, has all male genitalia, has small breasts, has more body and facial hair etc.
When we say sex is bimodal, we mean there is a male side and there is a female side in the bimodal distribution, we mean that one becomes a trans female if they have changed their secondary and/or primary sex characteristics via hormones and/or surgery to be on the female side of the bimodal distribution, and that one becomes a trans male if they have changed their secondary and/or primary sex characteristics via hormones and/or surgery to be on the male side of the bimodal distribution
Why are those statements false? Why is sex not a bimodal distribution? Are there any biologists here or in other places that have explained why sex is not bimodal and is a binary across all sexually reproducing species?
Question number 3 Saying that sperm = man and egg = woman is a pretty wobbly position. If we were to make a similar argument about other classifications, it would be: Backbone (the feature) = mammal (the category). Except that isn't true. Any number of vertebrates could have backbones, and so the presence of a backbone does not indicate one is a mammal.
Now we can flip this to category/feature and say woman = egg or man = sperm. Except that also isn't true. Post-menopausal women do not produce eggs.
In one scenario, imagine a woman or man removes all genitalia in surgery, they have no genitalia left anymore, they can not produce sperm or egg, how come they are not less of their sex for losing those abilities and are not of a different sex category after the removal of all genitalia?
So then it seems "those that produce eggs are women" or "those that produce sperm are men" is incorrect, as one does not need to have/produce eggs to be a woman or have/produce sperm to be a man.
Why am I wrong in that? Can you explain to me where I'm wrong in my beliefs