What is the stage jihad is in today? And what is the ruling?
- Is it prohibited ?
- Is it merely allowed?
- Is it commanded to only fight the ones who transgress against you? Or,
- Is it commanded to fight all the disbelievers?
Stages jihad went through:
Ibn Al-Qayyim says in 'Zaad Al-Ma‘ ad', “In the beginning, Jihad was not allowed,” it was prohibited;
Muslims were not allowed to fight. Rasulullah sallallahu 'alayhi wasallam said, “Be patient because I have not been given permission to fight.” So in the beginning it was patience.
Ibn Al-Qayyim said, “And then it was allowed.” It was merely allowed; it was not instructed, not commanded, not obligated; it was allowed.
And that is when Allah revealed the ayah: 'Permission [to fight] has been given to those who are being fought, because they were wronged. And indeed, Allah is competent to give them victory.' (Al-Hajj: 39)
Ibn Al-Qayyim says, “Then they were commanded to fight the ones who fight them.”
Allah says: 'Fight in the way of all those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors." (Al Baqarah: 190)
So here you only fight the ones who transgress against you.
This is the stage that represents the FINAL LAW OF ALLAH WHICH APPLIES TO THE UMMAH, and that is as Ibn Al-Qayyim says: “And then the Messenger of Allah
was instructed to fight all the disbelievers.” Allah says: 'And fight against the disbelievers collectively as they fight against you collectively.'(At-Tawbah: 36)
And there is also the Hadith which is Mutawatir: it is narrated by Al-Bukhari, Muslim and others, and narrated by over 20 Sahaba of Rasulullah: “I was instructed to fight the people until they testify that there is no God but Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah, to establish Salah and to pay Zakah. If they do that they have protected their blood and their wealth, and Allah will hold them accountable for their deeds.”
🟪 Important verses of Surah at-Tawbah
▪️Surah at-Tawbah (9:5)
“So when the Sacred Months have passed, then fight the Mushrikin wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them, and lie in wait for them in each and every ambush. But if they repent and perform the Salah, and give the Zakah, then leave their way free. Verily, Allah is most-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”
This is the Ayah of the Sword.
Mujahid, Amr bin Shuayb, Muhammad bin Ishaq, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that the four months mentioned in this Ayah are the four-month grace period mentioned in the earlier Ayah,
(So travel freely for four months throughout the land.)
(So when the Sacred Months have passed...), meaning, Upon the end of the four months during which We prohibited you from fighting the idolators, and which is the grace period We gave them, then fight and kill the idolators wherever you may find them.'
Allah's statement next,
(then fight the Mushrikin wherever you find them), means, on the earth in general, except for the Sacred Area, for Allah said (And fight not with them at Al-Masjid Al-Haram, unless they fight you there. But if they attack you, then fight them. 2:191)
Allah said here,
(and capture them), executing some and keeping some as prisoners,
(and besiege them, and lie in wait for them in each and every ambush), do not wait until you find them. Rather, seek and besiege them in their areas and forts, gather intelligence about them in the various roads and fairways so that what is made wide looks ever smaller to them. This way, they will have no choice, but to die or embrace Islam.
(But if they repent and perform the Salah, and give the Zakah, then leave their way free. Verily, Allah is most-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)
Abu Bakr As-Siddiq used this and other honorable Ayat as proof for fighting those who refrained from paying the Zakah. These Ayat allowed fighting people unless, and until, they embrace Islam and implement its rulings and obligations.
Allah mentioned the most important aspects of Islam here, including what is less important. Surely, the highest elements of Islam after the Two Testimonials, are the prayer, which is the right of Allah, the Exalted and Ever High, then the Zakah, which benefits the poor and needy. These are the most honorable acts that creatures perform, and this is why Allah often mentions the prayer and Zakah together.
In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,
“I have been commanded to fight the people until they testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establish the prayer and pay the Zakah.”
This honorable Ayah (9:5) was called the Ayah of the Sword, about which Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim said, "It abrogated every agreement of peace between the Prophet and any idolator, every treaty, and every term.''
Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas commented: "No idolator had any more treaty or promise of safety ever since Surah Bara'ah(At-Tawbah) was revealed. The four months, in addition to, all peace treaties conducted before Bara'ah was revealed and announced had ended by the tenth of the month of Rabi Al-Akhir.''
▪️Surah at-Tawbah (9: 29)
“Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth among the People of the Scripture until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission and feel themselves subdued.”
Therefore, when People of the Scriptures disbelieved in Muhammad, they had no beneficial faith in any Messenger or what the Messengers brought. Rather, they followed their religions because this conformed with their ideas, lusts and the ways of their forefathers, not because they are Allah's Law and religion. Had they been true believers in their religions, that faith would have directed them to believe in Muhammad, because all Prophets gave the good news of Muhammad's advent and commanded them to obey and follow him. Yet when he was sent, they disbelieved in him, even though he is the mightiest of all Messengers. Therefore, they do not follow the religion of earlier Prophets because these religions came from Allah, but because these suit their desires and lusts. Therefore, their claimed faith in an earlier Prophet will not benefit them because they disbelieved in the master, the mightiest, the last and most perfect of all Prophets.
Hence Allah's statement,
(Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth among the People of the Scripture) (People of the Scripture are Christians, jews and any group that received a divine book)
This honorable Ayah was revealed with the order to fight the People of the Book, after the pagans were defeated, the people entered Allah's religion in large numbers, and the Arabian Peninsula was secured under the Muslims' control. Allah commanded His Messenger to fight the People of the Scriptures, Jews and Christians, on the ninth year of Hijrah, and he prepared his army to fight the Romans and called the people to Jihad announcing his intent and destination. The Messenger sent his intent to various Arab areas around Al-Madinah to gather forces, and he collected an army of thirty thousand. Some people from Al-Madinah and some hypocrites, in and around it, lagged behind, for that year was a year of drought and intense heat. The Messenger of Allah marched, heading towards Ash-Sham to fight the Romans until he reached Tabuk, where he set camp for about twenty days next to its water resources. He then prayed to Allah for a decision and went back to Al-Madinah because it was a hard year and the people were weak, as we will mention, Allah willing.
Surat At-Tawbah is the only surah in the Qur'an that doesn't start with (In the name of Allah the the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful) It was reported that ‘Ali was asked about the reason why Surat At-Tawbah also known as bara'ah doesn't start with the basmallah and he said: “Al-Basmalah means peace, and Chapter 9 was revealed with a sword [i.e. ordering the believers to fight the disbelievers] and it does not include any peace.”
Today there too many ignorant Muslims and hypocrites who claim that Jihad is only defensive, and that Muslims shouldn't fight unless provoked, and use some Qur'an verses to justify that, and the truth is that at the beginning of Islam it was true that Muslims only fought who fought them first, but when Surat At-Tawbah was revealed it changed everything, now Muslims were commanded to fight and spread Islam on all of earth, giving the kuffar only two choices, it's Islam or death, with exception for the people of the book such as the christians and the jews who were giving a third option, which is to pay Jizya and live under an Islamic state. Surat At-Tawbah was one of last revealed Surats in all of the Qur'an.