Detransition-Related Scientific Studies
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Vandenbussche, Elie (2021). "Detransition-Related Needs and Support: A Cross-Sectional Online Survey".
Singh, Devita Bradley, Susan and Zucker, Kenneth, (2021) "A Follow-Up Study of Boys With Gender Identity Disorder".
Cantor, James (2016). "Do Trans Kids Stay Trans When They Grow Up?". Sexology Today!.
Clarke, Anna Churcher (2019). "‘Taking the Lid Off the Box’: The Value of Extended Clinical Assessment for Adolescents Presenting with Gender Identity Difficulties". Clinical Child Psychologyand Psychiatry.
Davenport, Charles W (1986). "A Follow-Up Study of 10 Feminine Boys". Archives of Sexual Behavior. Pages 511–517.
Delay, Dawn; Martin, Carol Lynn; Cook, Rachel E; Hanish, Laura D (2018). “The Influence of Peers During Adolescence: Does Homophobic Name Calling by Peers Change Gender Identity?”. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.
Dhejne, Cecilia; Lichtenstein, Paul; Boman, Marcus; Johansson, Anna LV; Långström, Niklas; Landén, Mikael (2011). "Long-Term Follow-Up of Transsexual Persons Undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery: Cohort Study in Sweden". PLoS ONE.
Drummond, KD; Bradley, SJ; Peterson-Badali, M; Zucker, KJ (2008). "A Follow-Up Study of Girls with Gender Identity Disorder". Developmental Psychology. Pages 44, 34–45.
Green, R (1987). "The 'Sissy-Boy Syndrome' and the Development of Homosexuality". Yale University Press.
Kosky, RJ (1987). "Gender-disordered Children: Does Inpatient Treatment Help?" Medical Journal of Australia. Pages 146, 565–569.
Lebovitz, PS (1972). "Feminine Behavior in Boys: Aspects of Its Outcome." The American Journal of Psychiatry. Pages 128, 1283–1289.
Marchiano, Lisa (2017). "Outbreak: On Transgender Teens and Psychic Epidemics". Psychological Perspectives.
Money, J; Russo, AJ (1979). "Homosexual Outcome of Discordant Gender Identity/Role: Longitudinal Follow-Up.". Journal of Pediatric Psychology. Pages 4, 29–41.
Singh, Devita (2012). "A Follow-Up Study of Boys with Gender Identity Disorder". American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry / Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Joint Annual Meeting.
Steensma, Thomas D; McGuire, Jenifer K; Kreukels, Baudewijntje PC; Beekman, Anneke J; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy Tine (2013). "Factors Associated with Desistence and Persistence of Childhood Gender Dysphoria: A Quantitative Follow-Up Study". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Pages 52, 582–590.
Wallien, Madeleine SC; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy Tine (2008). "Psychosexual Outcome of Gender-Dysphoric Children" Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Pages 1413–1423.
Zuger, B (1978). "Effeminate Behavior Present in Boys from Childhood: Ten Additional Years of Follow-Up". Comprehensive Psychiatry. Pages 19, 363–369.
Zuger, B (1984). "Early Effeminate Behavior in Boys: Outcome and Significance for Homosexuality". Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. Pages 172, 90–97.
Puberty Blocker (GnRH-agonist) Related Scientific Research
What is GnRH?
GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) is the releasing hormone within the anterior pituitary gland responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). GnRH is responsible for the onset of puberty. When GnRH pulses from the hypothalamus (a region of your forebrain responsible for coordinating activity between the nervous system and pituitary, i.e. controlling your body temperature, thirst, hunger, sleep, and emotions) the gonadotropins stimulate the gonad to produce sex hormones. This would be the production of testosterone in natal males, and estrogen in natal females.
What are GnRH-agonists and what are their importance?
GnRH-agonists (gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists) are the classification of medications that puberty blockers are part of. Common puberty blockers that fall within this classification routinely used in clinical settings are: Lupron, Leuprolide, Histrelin/Supprelin, Gonadorelin, Zoladex, etc.
Claude Carel, Jean (2006). "Management of short stature with GnRH agonist and co-treatment with growth hormone: A controversial issue, Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology" Department of Pediatric Endocrinology. Volumes 254–255, Pages 226-233, ISSN 0303-7207.
This particular study evaluates clinical usage of GnRH-agonists for usage of precocious puberty, addresses the controversies surrounding their medical efficacy within the pediatric community, and the potential long-term affects of GnRH-agonists have on developing bodies.
C. Bouvattier, J. Coste, D. Rodrigue, C. Teinturier, J. C. Carel, J. L. Chaussain, P. F. Bougnères (1999). "Lack of Effect of GnRH Agonists on Final Height in Girls with Advanced Puberty: A Randomized Long-Term Pilot Study, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism" Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. Volume 84, Issue 10
This particular study evaluates clinical usage of GnRH-agonists for usage of precocious puberty, particularly focuses on their long-term results in regards to intended treatment and their affects on sexual maturation.
Jensen, R. K., Jensen, J. K., Simons, L. K., Chen, D., Rosoklija, I., & Finlayson, C. A. (2019). "Effect of Concurrent Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Treatment on Dose and Side Effects of Gender-Affirming Hormone Therapy in Adolescent Transgender Patients." Transgender health, 4(1), 300–303.
This particular study evaluates the physical effectiveness of GnRH-agonists on transgender youth, and the prevention of natal secondary sexual characteristic development. This study also evaluates the lack of data around GnRH-agonists, their potential side affects, and the controversies around their medical efficacy.
Lopez, C. M., Solomon, D., Boulware, S. D., & Christison-Lagay, E. (2018). "Trends in the “Off-Label” Use of GnRH Agonists Among Pediatric Patients in the United States" Clinical Pediatrics, 57(12), 1432–1435.
This particular study is unfortunately behind a paywall, but worth reading if you have access financially or via an academic institution. This study evaluates the off-label usage of GnRH-agonists outside of medical context that warrants need for these particular drugs (i.e. gender-related usages), and the affects on adolescents.
Olson-Kennedy, J., Streeter, L. H., Garofalo, R., Yee-Ming, C., Rosenthal, S. M. (2021). "Histrelin Implants for Suppression of Puberty in Youth with Gender Dysphoria: A Comparison of 50 mcg/Day (Vantas) and 65 mcg/Day (SupprelinLA)" Transgender Health, Vol., 6 No. 1 Original Article
This particular study was one of the first studies specifically measuring the effectiveness of GnRH-agonists (Supprelin LA and Vantas) within transgender populations. While this study provides insight towards the usage of GnRH-agonists within gender diverse youth populations and how certain medications used for pubertal suppression have no indicated pediatric usage, it fails to provide data around the long-term health implications.
Lambrese, J., Giordano, S. (2010) "Suppression of Puberty in Transgender Children" AMA Journal of Ethics Original Article
This particular study mainly focuses on the psychology of gender dysphoria, and anecdotes around the usage of puberty blockers to aid symptoms of dysphoria - however, provides insight towards the irreversibility and under-researched aspects of the long-term health implications of pubertal suppression.
Evans, N. P., Robinson, J. E., Fleming, L. M., Erhard, H. W., Ropstad, E., Ronit Hebold Harrison, I. "Development of psychophysiological motoric reactivity is influenced by peripubertal pharmacological inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone action – Results of an ovine model" (see also: https://www.gla.ac.uk/news/archiveofnews/2012/july/headline_237260_en.html) Psychoneuroendocrinology, Volume 37, Issue 11, Pages 1876-1884, ISSN 0306-4530.
This particular studies evaluates the long-term affects of puberty blockers on the brain and body during puberty, and after usage of blockers on a control group of rams. It's important to note why rams were used in this study, and how their brain activity/physiological response is measurable and relevant for humans:
Professor Neil Evans of the University of Glasgow said, “We used sheep because the time course of pubertal development is more similar to humans than laboratory rodents. As sheep are flock animals, and like to see other sheep, an easy way to test their emotional response is to place them in social isolation for a two minute period. This was done at three times, before, during and after puberty. The results showed that females had a greater emotional response than males, both before and after puberty. Interestingly the results also showed that the emotional response of males, but not females, was significantly altered when puberty was blocked." The results suggest that changes in hormones during adolescence drive changes in the brains of males that alter emotional reactivity.
"Puberty Blockers and Suicidality in Adolescents Suffering from Gender Dysphoria" This resource explains why "suicidal ideation is lower in transgender adults who as adolescents had been prescribed “puberty blockers”—gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa)." is false and goes into detail about how the conclusion was made off a low-quality survey and how Jack Turban has actually contributed nothing to the knowledge of the usage of puberty blockers.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/histrelin This source lists several chapters of various peer reviewed sources discussing the drug Histrelin (Supprelin LA or Vantas), it's intended use and research around the usage of it in transgender and gender nonconforming youth, the process of undergoing billing/insurance and medical implantation, and potential side affects.
https://www.rxlist.com/vantas-side-effects-drug-center.htm https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/d00575a1 These sources list the long-term health implications of GnRH-agonists (specifically Supprelin LA and Vantas), and associated health risks.
https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/masculinizing-hormone-therapy/about/pac-20385099#:~:text=If%20used%20in%20an%20adolescent,not%20typically%20used%20in%20children This sources mainly speaks about masculinizing hormone therapy, however this particular section within this source recommends hormonal treatments start at around age 16 while pubertal suppression typically begins around tanner stage II of puberty (which can be induced as early as age 10) - this is concerning due to there being a potential of developing adolescents lacking sex hormones (both cross sex or natal) for years at a time.
Excerpts from the World Professional Association for Transgender Healthcare, Standards of Care, Vol. 7:
Page 13. Phenomenology in Adolescents
Among adolescents who are referred to gender identity clinics, the number considered eligible for early medical treatment—starting with GnRH analogues to suppress puberty in the first Tanner stages—differs among countries and centers. Not all clinics offer puberty suppression. If such treatment is offered, the pubertal stage at which adolescents are allowed to start varies from Tanner stage 2 to stage 4 (Delemarre-van de Waal & Cohen-Kettenis, 2006; Zucker et al., 2012). The percentages of treated adolescents are likely influenced by the organization of health care, insurance aspects, cultural differences, opinions of health professionals, and diagnostic procedures offered in different settings.
This is concerning due to the lack of centralization and policy around the usage of puberty blockers in a clinical environment.
Page 19. Fully Reversible Interventions.
Two goals justify intervention with puberty-suppressing hormones: (i) their use gives adolescents more time to explore their gender nonconformity and other developmental issues; and (ii) their use may facilitate transition by preventing the development of sex characteristics that are difficult or impossible to reverse if adolescents continue on to pursue sex reassignment. Puberty suppression may continue for a few years, at which time a decision is made to either discontinue all hormone therapy or transition to a feminizing/masculinizing hormone regimen. Pubertal suppression does not inevitably lead to social transition or to sex reassignment.
This is concerning due to the fallacy that puberty blockers are reversible (review citations above), and due to the medical guidelines justifying the usage of puberty blockers long-term without any sex-hormones present before an adolescent decides to undergo HRT (hormone replacement therapy) or to undergo natal puberty.
revision by DetransISdetrans female with DSD— view source