The Wiki page on transgender sexual orientation has a section on sexual orientation distribution, but only covers the USA properly, finding that most trans-womxyn are gynaephiles. It gives the impression that this is the norm, though I suspect it's the exception. I hypothesise that in other cultures, what we would regard as trans-womxyn, are actually exclusively attracted to men.
Here are my findings:
Thailand's Kathoey are androphiles:
"ihr sexuelles Begehren richtet sich auf maskuline Männer"
India's Hijira are androphiles:
Androphiles in Samoa are called fa’afafine, which groups what we would call gay men & transgender women together as one:
Muxes of Mexico are androphiles:
The Mak Nyahs of Malasia are androphiles:
All the mentions to sexual orientation on this Wiki page on Two Spirit people always makes reference to same-sex relations:
"kwekaazo and ininiikaazo could take spouses of their own sex [...] If widowed, the spouse of an ikwekaazo or ininiikaazo could remarry someone of the opposite sex or another ikwekaazo or ininiikaazo"
This is all I've been able to find so far on sexual orientation of trans people outside the West. Is there any better evidence that confirms or rebukes this hypothesis?
If this hypothesis is true then are gynaephilic trans-womxyn legitimate if they are exclusive to the West?
Also, is it just me or are the most dogmatic trans activists (who claim they are biologically female) tend to be the gynaephilic types. Compare Riley J. Dennis & Zinnia Jones to Blaire White, for instance.
I added a couple more examples since my first posting. Here are a few excerpts covering many cultures:
“As far as the sexual orientation of hijra people is cocnerned Hossain (2012) who conducted an ethnogrpahic research in Bangladesh stated that sexually and romantically hijra people are attracted towards “macho” men (Hossain 2012, 495)”
“Thailand’s third-gender kathoey also deviate from the conventional sex and gender binary models. Generally, the kathoey are perceived as feminine males who are sexually inclined toward men (Grünhagen 2016, 224-225)”
“In terms of sexual orientation, male berdache were generally inclined toward non-berdache men (Roscoe 1996, 335)”
“Zenanas and hijras [hijra people] alike consider themselves to have been endowed with a feminine soul since birth. They understand this soul not only to have driven them to be feminine in appearance and gender role but also to have shaped their sexual preference for men (F. Khan, 2016, 159)"
Interestingly, outside the present day West, transgendered males are essentially just another type of homosexual:
"In Western cultural contexts, male androphiles who fit this egalitarian pattern are often referred to as gay men In contrast, in most non-Western societies, transgendered male androphilia appears to be the cultural norm Transgendered male androphilia occurs between a male who is markedly gender-atypical and another who is more or less gender-typical for his own sex. Thus, partners adopt different social roles and do not treat each other as social equals. In many non-Western cultures, transgendered androphilic males often occupy ‘alternative’ gender role categories that are distinguished linguistically from the gender-normative categories of ‘man’ and ‘woman’. Some contemporary examples include the xanith of Oman, the hijra of India, the kathoey of Thailand, the travestí of Brazil, the fakafefine of Tonga and the fa'afafine of Samoa (Herdt 1996; Murray 2000)"
More specifically, transgendered males receive a feminine identity according not only to being homosexual, but based on their sexual role as the penetrated partner:
“Jainism also demonstrates a historical understanding of gender nonconformity. The Jain community interpreted gender-variance through a unique lens, where one’s role during intercourse determined one’s gender identity (Reddy, 2005)”
This lens does not seem to be all that unique, as I have seen evidence of this time & time again:
“The māhū of Hawaii and other Pacific Islands, similarly possess feminine gender characteristics and engage in intercourse with male chiefs. During the encounter, the māhū is penetrated and adopts the sexual roles of a woman. That said, māhūs are not generally seen as women, but rather as replacements for women. A sexual relationship with a māhū is considered convenient, pleasurable, and a relatively pressure-free engagement (Besnier 1996, 301)”
“1 Transgendered MM are defined as biological males who identify as female, but in appearance are male. Their reported partners are young men, and they have a sexual preference for men. In general, transgendered MM perform oral sex and receive anal sex.
2 Transgendered MW are defined as biological males who identify as female, and in appearance are female. Their reported partners are young men, and they have a sexual preference for men. In general, transgendered MW perform oral sex and receive anal sex” https://www.psi.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/WP76.pdf
“According to the information given by the participants in this study, the Kathoey’s sexual practices are in line with those of homosexual men as they have anal and oral sex as well as mutual masturbation. They are usually penetrated and they will penetrate their partner if asked to do so, although this does not appear to be the most frequent or popular asexual activity”
This example you have to infer by way of process of elimination:
The study shows that the majority of the respondents would not allow their boyfriends to masturbate them (76%) or to do oral sex on them (88%). They also would not do anal sex on their boyfriend (93%) https://www.susans.org/forums/index.php?topic=27885.0
Also, it turns out I'm not the first to make the general observation of this post. The following study confirms that the preponderance of gynaephilic types in individualistic societies vs. the androphilic ones in collectivist societies can be predicted with 77% accuracy (not all individualistic societies are Western & not all Western cultures are individualist, but there is a general correlation between the two):